Question 12. What kind of federation is India and why? (2014) Answer: India is part of a “cohesion” federation. In this type of federation, a large country shares its power between the constituent states and the national government. There is a government for the whole country, and the others are governments at the state level. The central government and the government enjoy their power independently of each other. The governmental or constitutional structure found in a federation is considered federalist or an example of federalism. It can be considered the opposite of another system, the state of unity. France, for example, has been united for several centuries. Austria and its states were a unitary state with administrative units, which was federalized by the implementation of the Austrian Constitution following the collapse of Austria and Hungary in 1918. Germany, with its 16 states, is an example of a confederation. Federations are often multi-ethnic and cover a large area (such as Russia, the United States, Canada, India or Brazil), but both are not necessarily the case (such as St.
Kitts and Nevis or the Federated States of Micronesia). The relationship between Crown`s isleas of Man dependencies and the bailiwicks of Guernsey and Jersey, in the Channel Islands and the United Kingdom, is very similar to a federal relationship: the islands enjoy the independence of the United Kingdom, which deals with their external relations and defence through The Crown – although the British Parliament has the power to legislate on dependencies. However, these islands are not part of the United Kingdom and are not considered independent or associated states. The islands do not have a monarch per se; rather on the Isle of Man is the British monarch, officially, lord of man, and in the bailiwicks of Guernsey and jersey reigns the British monarch as Duke of Normandy. A more nuanced view of the Federal Constitutional Court.  Here, the EU is defined as “unification of sovereign nation-states.”  With this view, the European Union is more like a confederation. Central government tends to be more powerful vis-à-vis states. Often, different constituent entities of the Federation have unequal powers. For example, special powers have been granted to Jammu and Kashmir.
Discuss two types of routes through which the federations were formed. Seven of the eight largest countries are governed as federations. The management in the centre decided to divide their authority among several states. In this genre, however, the central government is the most powerful, and there is the asymmetrical distribution of authority between the centre and the state. This is called the holding federation together. A third level of the Federation has been added in the form of panchayats and municipalities. As in each association, these different levels have a separate jurisdiction. The Constitution provides for a triple distribution of legislative powers between the EU government and the government.